Łódź was founded in 1423. The modern city arose in the 19th century based on the textile industry. Currently, the city has around 700,000 inhabitants. The legacy of Łódź is the Art Nouveau metropolitan and industrial architecture, defining the city as the Art Nouveau jewel of Central Europe. Łódź underwent rapid development in the 19th century.
In the 20th century, and especially the collapse of the industry that followed the end of the communist era, led to a sharp regression in development of the city. Łódź thus had to find a new philosophy of action. The response to these challenges was the idea of revitalisation, which includes both construction and economic aspects, but which first and foremost focuses on social and cultural issues.